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WHARVES AND PIERS THEIR DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT BT CARLETON GREENE, A. B., C. E. MEMBEH AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS FIRST EDITION SECOND IMPRESSION McGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY, INC. 239 WEST 39TH STREET, NEW YORK LONDON HILT, PUBLISHING CO, LTD. 6 8 BOUVERIE ST, E C 1917 PREFACE THIS book has been written in response to an editorial in one of the engineering journals calling attention to the lack of American books on the subject of Wharves and Piers. In its preparation the author has therefore endeavored to present a treatise on modern American practice in the de sign and construction of wharves, piers, pier-sheds and their equipment, including machinery for handling miscellaneous package freight. The subject of pile driving has not been gone into deeply as it has been treated at length in Jacoby and Davis recent work on Foundations of Bridges and Buildings. It is the writers opinion that there is a tendency at the present time to slight the advantages of timber construction for wharves and to overestimate those of reinforced con crete. As the principles and methods requisite for dura bility in wooden wharf construction have, as far as the writer knows, not been set forth in book form they have been given particular attention in this volume. While most of the descriptions and illustrations of ex isting structures have necessarily been collected from the technical press, for which no originality is claimed, an attempt has been made to emphasize, in describing such structures, the particular conditions which had to be pro vided for in the design, the methods used for fulfilling the special requirements and, to some extent, the reasons why particular types and details wereadopted. It is believed that such descriptions will aid designers in solving prob lems which embrace similar conditions. viii PREFACE For information in regard to European practice in the construction of wharves and piers the reader is referred to Seehafenbau by F. W. Schulze Berlin, Ernst Sohn 1913, and for further information in regard to the New York practice in freight handling to the Report on the Mechanical Equipment of New York Harbor by B. F. Cresson, Jr., and Chas. W. Stamford and to other reports published by the Department of Docks. In Fowlers Subaqueous Foundations may be found examples of the wooden piers of the Pacific Coast and in the latest edition of Merrimans American Civil Engineers Pocket Book there is much valuable information in condensed form. Acknowledgments arc due to Mr. Charles W. Staniford, Chief Engineer of the Department of Docks, New York, N. Y., and to the other officials of that department for photographs, drawings and information to Mr. S. W. Hoag, Jr, for permission to reprint portions of his paper on New York docks, published in the proceedings of The Municipal Engineers of New York, to Engineering News, Engineer ing Record, Engineering Contracting and International Marine Engineering, also to the General Electric Co.. Lidgerwood Mfg. Co., Brown Portable Elevator Co., J. Edward Ogden Co., American Engineering Co. and others for illustrations. C G NJW YORK, January, 1917 CONTENTS PAGE PREFACE . … vn CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION DEFINITIONS i REQUIREMENTS 2 TYPES . 3 MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION 4 Timber 4 Wood Preservatives 9 Concrete 1 1 Concrete Pile 13 Stone Masonry 14 Steel 14 Cast Iron IQ Riprap 17 Concrete vs Timber 17 CHAPTER II PRIMARY PRINCIPLES OFDESIGN COMMERCIAL LU-E 19 GROWTH OF SHIPS 22 MARGINAL WHARVES vs PIERS 23 DIMENSIONS OF WHARVES 24 LIVE LOADS 26 TIDAL PRISM 26 CHAPTER III – DETAILS OF TIMBER CONSTRUCTION PILES AND PILE DRIVING 28 Pile Formulae 28 Steam vs Drop Hammers 29 Lagged Pile 29 Floating Drivers 29 Inclined Drivers 30 Pile Follower 31 LATERAL SUPPORT FOR PILES 31 TEST PILES AND BORINGS 32 DETAILS OF CONSTRUCTION 33 IRON AND WOOD FASTENINGS 40 SEWERS IN PIERS 42 x CONTENTS CHAPTER IV…